Lahore Journal of Business
(HEC recognized journal in "Y" category)

The Lahore Journal of Business is a peer-reviewed biannual publication of the Lahore School of Economics. It intends to disseminate and extend knowledge about the ever-evolving business issues, in a manner beneficial to academic scholars, business managers, policymakers and all other stakeholders. The LJB follows an open-access policy to make scholarly research accessible to everyone.
Journal e-ISSN: 2791-3139
Journal p-ISSN: 2223-0025
Indexing/Abstracting: EBSCO Host, PASTIC Directory.

Manuscript Submission
The annual subscription charges are Pakistani Rs. 600 for domestic subscribers and US $50 for overseas subscribers. If you wish to subscribe, please email the LJB at for a subscription form.
Licensing & Copyright
The Lahore Journal of Business is an open-access journal that distributes its articles under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Noderivatives license ( : This license permits non-commercial re-use, dissemination, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is appropriately cited, and is not changed, transformed, or built upon in any way. Therefore, with this Creative Commons license in mind, the Lahore Journal of Business retains the right to publish an article upon successful completion of the submission and approval process, along with the consent of the author(s).

Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International    

Aims and Scope

The Lahore Journal of Business is aimed at providing a specialized forum for dissemination of qualitative and quantitative research in various areas of business administration. The LJB invites researchers, policy makers and analysts to submit original theoretical and empirical papers that explore and contribute to the understanding of various areas in the business domain. The Journal aims at bringing together state-of-art research findings, particularly from emerging markets, in various business disciplines including (but not limited to) accounting, banking, management, marketing, finance, investments, human resource management and organizational behavior.

        Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under
         Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Lahore Journal of Business (LJB) 

Managing Editors
Dr. Arshad Hasan, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan

Professor Rahat Munir, Macquarie University, Australia
Professor Yavuz Günalay, Bahçe?ehir University, Turkey
Professor Suhaiza Zailani, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
Professor Chandana Aluthge, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Dr. Dragana Ostic, Jiangsu University, China

Editorial Advisory Board

Dr. Herve Alexandre
Université Paris-Dauphine, France

Dr. Meziane Lasfer
Cass Business School, United Kingdom

Dr. Parvinder Arora
SP Jain School of Management, India
Dr. Shahid Amjad Chaudhry
Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Dr. Inayat Ullah Mangla
Western Michigan University, United States
Dr. Robert Brooks
Monash University, Australia
Dr. Naved Hamid
Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Dr. Nihel Chabrak
TELECOM SudParis, France
Dr. Franck Moraux
Université de Rennes, France
Dr. Waqar Ghani
Saint Joseph’s University, United States
Dr. Catherine Refait-Alexandre
University of Franche-Comt'e, France
Dr. Sohail Zafar
Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Dr. Virginie Vial-kilner
KEDGE Business School, France
Dr. Salma Kasbi
THEMA, University of Cergy-Pontoise, France
Dr. Rana Wajid
Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Dr. Wayne Marr
University of Alaska, United States
Dr. Khaled Hussainey
Bangor University, United Kingdom
Dr. Azam Chaudhry
Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan
Dr. Cui Yong
Jiangsu University, China
Dr. Collins Ntim
University of Southampton, United Kingdom

Editorial Staff
Ms. Sadia Tabassam, Assistant Editor

Tel No: +92 42 36561041
Telefax: +92 42 36560905
Publisher: Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan
Postal Address: Intersection Main Boulevard Phase VI DHA, Burki Road Lahore 53200, Pakistan.

Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Submission Guidelines

All manuscripts must be submitted online through ScholarOne portal: .
The articles submitted to the Lahore Journal of Business go through an initial desk review which is conducted by the journal’s editors.
Should an article pass this initial desk review, it will be subject to a double-blind review. This includes reviews from local and international scholars. Please note that there are no submission or publication fees for the LJB.

        Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under
         Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Statement of Ethics and Responsibilities of the Lahore Journal of Business

The Lahore Journal of Business follows a strict code of conduct which is to be followed by all the parties associated with the publication process, including the authors, the editors, the editorial board, the peer reviewers, the publisher and the readers. This code of conduct is derived from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct guidelines which can be found at The principal responsibilities lie with the editors, the authors and the reviewers and are laid out below:

I. Responsibilities of the Editors

A. Publication Decisions & Accountability
The editors of the Lahore Journal of Business are responsible and accountable for all decisions regarding the publication of articles. These decisions are taken in light of the objectives of the journal and the policies and guidelines of the editorial board. During the publication process, the integrity and the intellectual and ethical standards of the journal should not be compromised at any point. The editors should at all times be willing and able to publish clarifications, corrections, apologies, retractions and negations as needed.
B. Fairness
All papers, articles, manuscripts submitted to the Lahore Journal must be evaluated for original content regardless of the gender, race, orientation, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, political philosophy, or citizenship of the author(s).
C. Confidentiality
The editors and the editorial staff cannot disclose any information regarding a submitted paper, article or manuscript other than to the corresponding author, the potential reviewers, the reviewers, the editorial staff, the editorial board and to the publisher.
D. Full Disclosure, conflicts of interest, and other issues
When considering retracting, issuing corrections or issuing expressions of concern regarding papers, manuscripts or articles, the editors of the Lahore Journal of Business will base their decisions on the journal’s publication guidelines and COPE’s Guidelines for Retracting Articles. None of the unpublished work and the accompanying information (including data and programs) can be used by the editors or anyone related to the journal without the explicit written approval of the author(s). Any ideas, information or knowledge that is obtained from the review process should be kept confidential and cannot be used by the editors or the staff for personal or professional benefit. The editors must ensure that advertising, commercial revenues, or reprints have no impact on the editorial decisions taken regarding submissions. A fair, transparent and suitable peer review process must be ensured by the editors. If any conflicts of interest exist or arise during the review process, the editor(s) must refrain from handling the relevant manuscripts.

II. Responsibilities of the Author

A. Originality and Plagiarism
The author(s) must ensure that papers, manuscripts, articles that are submitted to the Lahore Journal of Business are entirely original works, and if the author(s) have used any work, words or and/or ideas from any other sources the authors must ensure that this work has been properly cited and/or quoted.
B. Acknowledging of Sources
Complete and proper acknowledgement of the work of others should be given. Any author(s) whose reported work has been influenced by publications, authors, ideas should cite these clearly.
C. Authorship of the Paper
The authorship of any submitted manuscripts, paper, and articles must be limited to those individuals who have made significant contributions to the design, conception, execution, and/or interpretation of the submitted work. All of those that significantly contributed to the work submitted to the journal should be given authorship.
D. Reporting standards
Any original research which is submitted to the Lahore Journal of Business must present an accurate description of the work undertaken for the paper, and an objective discussion of the significance of the undertaken work. Any of the underlying data or facts that have been used in the work should be accurately and completely represented in the paper. The work should contain sufficient details of sources and references in order for others to replicate the findings of the paper. Any fraudulent or inaccurate statements as well as misrepresentations of the data and/or facts constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
E. Data Access and Retention
When submitting original works for consideration, the authors are also required to provide the raw data which may have been used in connection with the paper for editorial review. The authors should also be prepared to give public access to this data, if possible, and should be prepared to retain this data for a reasonable period of time after publication in the Lahore Journal of Business.
F. Redundant, Multiple or Concurrent Publications
In general, any author should not publish papers, manuscripts, articles that essentially describe the same research work in more than one primary publication or journal. The concurrent submission of the same article, manuscript, or paper to more than one journal will be considered unethical behavior and is not acceptable.
G. Fundamental errors in publications
If any author finds any significant errors or inaccuracies in his/her own published work, the author is obliged to immediately inform the journal editors or publisher and to work with the editors and the publisher to correct or retract the paper in the form of an erratum.

III. Responsibilities of the Reviewer

A. Contributing to editorial decisions
The review process of the Lahore Journal of Business is a double blind process. The purpose of the blind peer review is to guide the editor in making editorial decisions about submitted articles, manuscripts and papers and, potentially provide guidance to the author(s) in improving the submission.
B. Promptness
The editors should be promptly notified if the selected reviewer is unable or unqualified to review the research stated in the paper, article, or manuscript.
C. Confidentiality
During the review process, strict confidentiality should be maintained at all times. The unpublished work and the accompanying information (including data and any other accompanying information) can only be used by the reviewer during the review process and cannot be shared with others.
D. Standards of objectivity
During the review process, the reviewer must remain objective. The Lahore Journal of Business will not accept personal criticism of the author(s). All the comments by the reviewer’s comments and views must be clearly supported by facts and arguments grounded in academic research.
E. Acknowledgement of Sources
One of the key roles of the reviewer should to identify relevant published research work that has not been cited in the submitted research. In the reviews, any observations, derivations, or argument made by the reviewer that have been previously stated must be accompanied by all of the relevant citations. The reviewer must also point out any significant overlap and/or similarity between the manuscript that is being reviewed and any other previously published research to the editor and the author(s).

Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under
  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  

Notes for Authors

1. The cover page of the manuscript should have the title of the paper, the names(s) of the author(s), and a footnote giving the current affiliation of the author(s) and any acknowledgments. The cover page should be submitted separately from the main text file.
2. The main text file should be submitted as a blinded manuscript. It should not contain any information that can be used to identify the author(s).
3. The manuscript should include an abstract (maximum 300 words). The abstract should be followed by Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) classifications and keywords (four to six). Please note that JEL classifications are also available for marketing and management related topics. For more on JEL classifications please consult
4. The main text of the article should be in single-column format, double line spaced with font style of Times New Roman. All main headings should be bold with size 16, while subheadings should be bold with font size 14. The main text should be justified with size 12.
5. The numerals used for headings and subheadings should be 1, 1.1, and 1.1.1. It is advised to limit the level of headings within the main text file.
6. Distinguish between figures (diagrams) and tables (statistical material) and number them in separate sequences. Each table/figure should have a brief but descriptive title. All table/figures should be self-explanatory, incorporating any necessary descriptive material in a note at the base of the table.
7. Each mathematical formula, figure, and table should be submitted as editable text, not as pasted images.
8. Footnotes should be placed on their specific pages and be numbered sequentially.
9. References in the text should include the name(s) of the author(s) with the year of publication in parentheses, and all references should conform to the APA style.
10. All references used in the text should be listed at the end of the text in alphabetical order of the authors’ surnames and follow the APA style. For more details about referencing, please refer to the APA style manual.
11. The LJB can require authors to provide the data used in the analyses for the purpose of replication. The data should be clearly and precisely documented and be made available to the journal reviewer (if requested).
12. The names of two potential reviewers along with their contact information should be provided as part of the submission.

Except where noted, content on the Lahore Journal of Business website is licensed under
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International